I would like to add descriptions to the attributes (and attribute options) shown on the product page on the frontend.
Yes, is possible. You can check here: http://docs.magento.com/m2/ce/user_guide/catalog/product-attributes.html
My bad, I read "description attributes" and not "descriptions to the attributes".
You won't be able to that using Magento OOTB (out-of-the-box).
Can you explain the feature you want to build to understand a little bit more?
Sure! I want to be able to add a description to an attribute (preferably every attribute option) so that the customer could see some extra information about the attribute in the "additional info" tab on a product page. Something like on this site:
Sorry, it's not English, but I cannot find other examples. So if you would hower over the question mark, it would tell you more in depth about what exactly this attribute means.
Now I have a better idea.
As I said, you won't be able to add that information to the attribute without using a module or a custom solution.
If you check at https://marketplace.magento.com/catalogsearch/result/?q=Tooltip you'll find 1 module (but only for Magento 1).
I guess you should continue looking for something link that for Magento 2 (I guess that's the version you'll use)