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Could you include some examples of what you mean, please? I assume you aren't referring to the sponsored sections at the top of the google search results and to the side as these are the Google Adwords/Google Shopping paid adverts.
If you're referring to how some search results get shown with review star ratings, their price and sometimes image, this is achieved through providing structured data: https://developers.google.com/search/docs/guides/intro-structured-data
There are multiple approaches to adding structured data to your page and declaring which image should be included: JSON-LD, microdata, RDFa.
There are a few extensions on the marketplace which help with these so called "rich snippets" https://marketplace.magento.com/catalogsearch/result/?q=google%20structured%20data#q=google%20rich%2...