I thought I would repost the question here.
All of a sudden I have this error https://prnt.sc/j0enm4 on a Magento 1.9 shop.
It doesn't seem to be related to TLS 1.2 Paypal upgrade because I ran this script:
$ch = curl_init(); curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, "https://tlstest.paypal.com/"); var_dump(curl_exec($ch));
And it returned "Connection OK" message.
I am using Paypal Standard Payment Method.
Did you solve the problem? I am having exactly the same problem. Everything was working fine by today when all of a sudden the same error appeared when a buyer tries to pay with paypal.