So I have been having this problem ever since I started working at my store. Every month around the 8th my store's website goes down in what appears to be maintenance mode. However, there is no maintenance.flag file present. On the error logs that are generated I get a SQLSTATE[HY000]  No such file or directory error. However I am pretty sure that my database is present. I know it is a Magento based error because everything else is correct (web host, physical server in house, etc.)
Normally this sort of thing only lasts from 4am on the 8th until 1am on the 9th but it is still happening as I type this. Any help would be appreciated.
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Something so accurately timed as that sounds more like a scheduled job being run. Have you checked for any cron jobs on the server and asked your hosts to check in case there's something scheduled on the server that you can't see from your control panel? 21 hours is a long time for it to be down on a regular basis.
As far as I can tell there is nothing out of the ordinary and certainly nothing that would cause this issue.
It's not a config error, I'd expect that to be permanent. Magento uses cron for any regular or scheduled work, what cron jobs are configured?
On the webhosting via the cPanel there is only three cron jobs: the cpupdate, a monthly site backup, and a cpanel backup. If there are other cron jobs besides those I don't know where to find them and the web host support couldn't help me in that regard.
Dare I ask when the monthly site backup is scheduled to run?
The hosts may have set scheduled jobs to run at a higher level, for example if you are using Shared or VPS hosting then something may be running on the physical node. It would be unusual though that you're the only one experiencing such downtime and if it happened to everyone, you'd expect everyone to be complaining.
The backup happens on the 4th of each month.
Also really wish magento helped their community users. Not doing so gives them a bad rep in my opinion. I know this is a magento problem I just don't know how to fix it.