I've been developing magento plugins and themes on Windows a couple of weeks now but I'm facing an issue with very slow development time because of my current workflow.
I use Vagrant. The big problem is I can't create symlinks. I've tried all sorts of ways around this. If it would work, this workflow is ideal because I can modify files locally, and have the changes apply to the vagrant machine.
Because I'm using Windows Home I don't have the option of HyperV which means Docker faces the problem. Not a huge fan of docker. I've worked with it a lot in Linux environments, but prefer vagrant and good ol' bash script to provision.
The only other option I've had is to use xampp. It works for theme development and plugin development and once complete I can bundle those up and install on the vagrant box (which becomes staging basically).